Tuesday, September 18, 2012

AdaTutor - More Records and Types (2)

Tagged Records and Dynamic Dispatching

In Ada 95, a record may be tagged.  This allows us later to derive a new type from the original and add fields.  For example, if Day_Of_Week_Type is suitably declared along with Day_Subtype and Month_Type, Ada 95 lets us write

   type Date is tagged record
      Day   : Day_Subtype;
      Month : Month_Type;
      Year  : Integer;
   end record;

   type Complete_Date is new Date with record
      Day_Of_Week : Day_Of_Week_Type;
   end record;
Now objects of type Date have three fields: Day, Month, and Year, but objects of type Complete_Date have four fields: Day, Month, Year, and Day_Of_Week.

We can derive a new type without adding any fields by writing, for example,

   type New_Date is new Date with null record;

If a tagged record is to be a private type, the declaration in the package specification contains the words tagged private, like this:

   type Date is tagged private;

The actual structure of the record is declared in the private part of the package specification exactly as any other tagged record:

   private
      ...
      type Date is tagged record
         Day   : Day_Subtype;
         Month : Month_Type;
         Year  : Integer;
      end record;
This is called a private tagged type.

Ada 95 also has private extensions.  With the package specification segment shown below, the structure of type Date, with the fields Day, Month, and Year, is available outside the package.  However, the fact that a Complete_Date contains a Day_Of_Week field is not:

      type Date is tagged record
         Day   : Day_Subtype;
         Month : Month_Type;
         Year  : Integer;
      end record;
      type Complete_Date is new Date with private;
      ...
   private
      ...
      type Complete_Date is new Date with record
         Day_Of_Week : Day_Of_Week_Type;
      end record;

Ada 95 tagged types and Ada 95 hierarchical libraries both help support Object Oriented Design (OOD).

We can convert objects of a derived type to the parent type.  For example, if we have Cd : Complete_Date; we can write Date(Cd).  This is useful in making software reusable.  For example, suppose we have written a procedure to Display a Date:

   procedure Display(D : in Date);
If we now wish to write a procedure to Display a Complete_Date, we could call on the procedure we've already written.  If the above procedure and the associated types are defined in package P, we could write:
   with Ada.Text_IO, P; use P;
   procedure Display(Cd : in Complete_Date) is
      -- Call previous procedure to display the first 3 fields.
      Display(Date(Cd));
      -- Now display the fourth field.
      Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line(Day_Of_Week_Type'Image(Cd.Day_Of_Week));
   end Display;

Thus the procedure to display a Date was reused when we wrote the procedure to display a Complete_Date.

Although type Date and the types derived from it are all different types, we can refer to all the types collectively as Date'Class.  The attribute 'Class can be applied to the name of any tagged type.  If we declare an object to be of type Date'Class, we must initialize it so that the compiler will know the exact type of the object.  The type of this object can't change at run time.  For example, if we write D : Date'Class := Date'(12, Dec, 1815); we can't later write D := Complete_Date'(4, Jul, 1776, Thu);.  This would change the type of the object D and make it grow larger by adding a new field, Day_Of_Week.  This isn't permitted.

However, we can declare an access type to Date'Class without being specific about the exact type to be accessed:

type Ptr is access Date'Class;

Now objects of type Ptr can access objects of type Date at one time and objects of type Complete_Date at another.  Also, we could build a linked list, with some of the links of type Date and some of type Complete_Date.  This is called a heterogeneous linked list.

Let's suppose that we declare, in the specification for a package P, type Date (a tagged record), type Complete_Date derived from Date with an extra field, and two overloaded procedures Display, one to display a Date and one to display a Complete_Date.  Suppose that the specification for P also includes the definition for type Ptr:

type Ptr is access Date'Class;

Now suppose that our program, which withs and uses P, declares an array A of two elements of type Ptr.  Let A(1) access a Date and A(2) access a Complete_Date.  The program to follow shows how the system will decide at run time which of two overloaded versions of Display to call, depending on the type of A(I).all:

   package P is
      ...
      type Date is tagged record ...
      type Complete_Date is new Date with record ...
      type Ptr is access Date'Class;
      procedure Display(D : in Date);
      procedure Display(D : in Complete_Date);
   end P;

   with P; use P;
   procedure Dynamic_Dispatching_Demo is
      A : array(1 .. 2) of Ptr;
   begin
      A(1) := new Date'(12, Dec, 1815);
      A(2) := new Complete_Date'(4, Jul, 1776, Thu);
      for I in A'Range loop
         -- Decides at run time which Display to call.
         Display(A(I).all);
      end loop;
   end Dynamic_Dispatching_Demo;

This is called dynamic dispatching or tagged type dispatching, and is available only in Ada 95, not in Ada 83, because Ada 83 doesn't have tagged records.

In Ada 95, the attributes 'Class and 'Tag can be used in tests.  To illustrate this, we need a slightly more complicated example:

   type Employee is tagged record
      Name : String(1 .. 5);
   end record;

   type Hourly_Employee is new Employee with record
      Hours_Per_Week : Integer;
   end record;

   type Salaried_Employee is new Employee with record
      Days_Vacation : Integer;
   end record;

   type Manager is new Salaried_Employee with record
      Num_Supervised : Integer;
   end record;
Here we created a hierarchy of tagged types as follows:
   type Employee ... 
   type Hourly_Employee is new Employee ...
   type Salaried_Employee is new Employee ...
   type Manager is new Salaried_Employee ...
             Employee
                /\
               /  \
              /    \
 Hourly_Employee  Salaried_Employee
                        |
                        |
                     Manager
Note that Employee'Class includes all four types above, while Salaried_Employee'Class includes only Salaried_Employee and Manager.  The attribute 'Class means the type named and all the types below it in the hierarchy.

Now let's declare an array of four elements that access objects of types in Employee'Class:

   type P is access Employee'Class;
   A : array(1 .. 4) of P;

Finally, let's let each element of our array access a different type in our hierarchy:

A(1) := new Employee'(Name => "Alice");
A(2) := new Hourly_Employee'(Name => "Bob  ",
                             Hours_Per_Week => 40);
A(3) := new Salaried_Employee'(Name => "Carol",
                               Days_Vacation => 10);
A(4) := new Manager'(Name => "Dave ", Days_Vacation => 5,
                     Num_Supervised => 3);

Then the test A(1).all'Tag = A(2).all'Tag will be False, because A(1).all and A(2).all have different types.  The test A(4).all in Salaried_Employee'Class will be True, because type Manager is in Salaried_Employee'Class.  Finally, the test A(4).all in Hourly_Employee'Class will be False, because Hourly_Employee'Class contains only type Hourly_Employee, not type Manager.

The test for tag equality or inequality (e.g., A(1).all'Tag = A(2).all'Tag) requires that we with and use Ada.Tags, a package that comes with Ada 95.

In Ada 95, the formal parameters ("dummy arguments") of a subprogram may also be of a class-wide type.  For example, in a package that has defined both of our Display procedures and the associated types, we can write:

   procedure Show(X : in Date'Class) is
   begin
     Display(X);  -- Decides at run time which Display to call.
   end Show;

It this case, the exact type of X is not known until run time, and can vary from one call of Show to the next.  Therefore, the statement Display(X); will decide at run time which version of Display to call.

Related to this are access parameters in Ada 95.  Instead of writing

   procedure Show(X : in Date'Class);
we can write
   procedure Show(X : access Date'Class);

In this case, Show is no longer called with an object belonging to Date'Class (that is, a Date or a Complete_Date), but rather with an object of any access type that accesses objects belonging to Date'Class.  For example, we could now call Show with an object of the type Ptr we defined earlier:

   D : Ptr := new Complete_Date(4, Jul, 1776, Thu);
   Show(D);

Show again decides at run time which version of Display to call, but now Show must dereference the access value passed to it:

   procedure Show(X : access Date'Class) is
   begin
      Display(X.all);  -- Decides at run time which Display to call.
   end Show;

The accessibility check which we discussed earlier when we talked about access types has to be performed at run time in the case of access parameters.  The Ada 95 compiler automatically generates code to do this.  For access types accessing named objects, discussed earlier, the accessibility check is performed at compile time.  In both cases the purpose of the accessibility check is to insure that no object of an access type can ever access an object that no longer exists.

Here's our sample tagged type dispatching program, rewritten to make use of access parameters:

   package P is
      ...
      type Date is tagged record ...
      type Complete_Date is new Date with record ...
      type Ptr is access Date'Class;
      procedure Display(D : in Date);
      procedure Display(D : in Complete_Date);
      -- Body calls Display(X.all);
      procedure Show(X : access Date'Class);
   end P;

   with P; use P;
   procedure Dynamic_Dispatching_Demo is
      A : array(1 .. 2) of Ptr;
   begin
      A(1) := new Date'(12, Dec, 1815);
      A(2) := new Complete_Date'(4, Jul, 1776, Thu);
      for I in A'Range loop
         Show(A(I));
      end loop;
   end Dynamic_Dispatching_Demo;

Again, the for loop first displays a Date and then displays a Complete_Date.

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